Archive for September, 2009

Petroleum Product – The atmospheric straight run gas oils

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Usually there will be two gas oil side streams, a light gas oil side stream and belowthis take off a heavy gas oil side stream is withdrawn. Both these side—streams are steam stripped to meet their respective flash point specification (usually 150?F minimum). The lighter side stream (cut of about 480–610?F on crude) is the …

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Petroleum Product – The naphthas

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There are usually two naphtha cuts produced from most crude. These are: Light naphtha (sometimes called light gasoline) Heavy naphtha. Both these streams are the bottom product of the debutanizer unit. They are separated in a naphtha splitter fractionation tower. The light naphtha contains most of the crude’s C5’s and much of the paraffin portion …

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Petroleum Product – Refinery gas and the LPGs

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In many refineries most of theC4’s and lighter are removed from the atmospheric column overhead distillate in the first column of the light end unit. This is the unit’s debutanizer column. Some refineries however chose to separate the light naphtha and lighter from the heavy naphtha first. There is no specific reason one can assume …

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Petroleum Product – The vacuum distillation of atmospheric residue

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In modern refinery practice the distillation of atmospheric residue is accomplished under high vacuum conditions in a specially designed tower whose internal equipment ensures a very lower pressure drop. Normally the vacuum conditions in the flash zone of the tower allows about the same percentage of distillate based on the tower feed to be cut …

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Piping – Moody Friction Factor

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The factor of proportionality in the previous equations is called the  Moody friction factor and is determined from the Moody resistance diagram shown in Figure 8-1. The friction factor is sometimes expressed in terms of the Fanning friction factor, which is one-fourth of the Moody friction factor. In some references the Moody friction factor is …

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