Category: Compressors

Reciprocating Compressors – Fugitive Emissions Control

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One of the growing environmental concerns for both new and existing reciprocating compressor installations is fugitive emissions. Fugitive emissions are the leakage of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. The local environmental regulations should be checked at the beginning of the compression project to avoid delays and field modifications. The major source of fugitive …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Industry Standard Specifications

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Reciprocating compressors are generally classified as either low-speed (integral) compressors or high-speed (separable) compressors. API has provided a standard and specification for each type of compressor to help the user and the facility engineer provide reliable compressor installations. API Standard 618 “Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services” covers moderate- to low-speed compressors …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Foundation Design

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Satisafactory compressor installations many times depend on how well the foundation or support structure was designed. An inadequate foundation design can result in equipment damage due to excessive vibration. The money saved by cutting corners on foundation design effort may be spent many times in costs associated with high maintenance and lost production. Due to …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Pipe Sizing

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Because of the reciprocating action of the piston, care must be exercised to size the piping to minimize acoustical pulsations and mechanical vibrations. As a rule of thumb, suction and discharge lines should be sized for a maximum actual velocity of 30 ft/sec (1,800 ft/min) to 42 ft/sec (2,500 ft/min). Volume 1 contains the necessary …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Cylinder/Packing Lubrication System

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The flow required to lubricate the packing and cylinders is quite small, and the pressure necessary to inject the lubricant at these locations is quite high. Therefore, small plunger pump (force-feed lubricators) systerns are used. The force-feed lubricators are usually driven by the compressor crankshaft. The two basic types of cylinder lubrication systems are the …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Frame Lubrication System

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The frame lubrication system circulates oil to the frame bearings, connecting rod bearings, crosshead shoes, and can also supply oil to the packing and cylinder lubrication system. Splash lubrication systems are the least expensive and are used in small air compressors. Forced-feed systems are used for almost all oilfield gas compression applications. Figure 11-22 shows …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Cylinder Cooling

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Traditional compressor cylinder designs require cooling water jackets to promote uniform distribution of heat created by gas compression and friction. Some of the perceived advantages of water-cooled cylinders are reduced suction gas preheat, better cylinder lubrication, prolonged parts life, and reduced maintenance. Operating experience during the last 30 years has proven that compressor cylinders designed …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Rod Load

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The allowable rod load depends on rod diameter and material, and will be quoted by the manufacturer. The actual load can be calculated from the following equations if the geometry is known: The calculations shown above provide the gas load imposed on the rod (and crosshead bushing) by the compressor cylinder piston. To provide a …

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Reciprocating Compressors – Compressor Flexibility

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To enhance compressor flexibility it is desirable to design into the compressor the capability of operating at other than the original design conditions. If it is desired to provide flexibility to operate at lower suction pressures: * Add the ability to increase speed or * Add variable clearance initially, when the suction pressure is high; …

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