Category: Tray

High Capacity Trays

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All vendors now market a high capacity tray. These trays have a 5 to 15 percent capacity advantage over conventional trays. Basically, the idea behind these high capacity trays is the same. The area underneath the downcomer is converted to bubble area. This increase in area devoted to vapor flow reduces the percent of jet …

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Distillation Tower Turndown

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The problem we have been discussing—loss of tray efficiency due to low vapor velocity—is commonly called turndown. It is the opposite of flooding, which is indicated by loss of tray efficiency at high vapor velocity. To discriminate between flooding and weeping trays, we measure the tower pressure drop. If the pressure drop per tray, expressed …

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Bubble-Cap Trays

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The first continuous distillation tower built was the “patent still” used in Britain to produce Scotch whiskey, in 1835. The patent still is to this day employed to make apple brandy in southern England. The original still, and the one I saw in England in 1992, had ordinary bubble-cap trays (except downpipes instead of downcomers …

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Causes of Tray Inefficiency : Loss of Downcomer Seal

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We stated that the top edge of the outlet weir is maintained about 0.5 in above the bottom edge of the inlet downcomer to prevent vapor from flowing up the downcomer. This is called a 0.5-in positive downcomer seal. But for this seal to be effective, the liquid must overflow the weir. If all the …

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Causes of Tray Inefficiency : Out-of-Level Trays

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When trays weep, efficiency may not be significantly reduced. After all, the dripping liquid will still come into good contact with the upflowing vapor. But this statement would be valid only if the tray decks were absolutely level. And in the real world, especially in large (>6-ft)-diameter columns, there is no such thing as a …

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How Trays Work

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A distillation tray works efficiently when the vapor and liquid come into intimate contact on the tray deck. To this end, the liquid should flow evenly across the tray deck. The vapor should bubble up evenly through the perforations on the tray deck. The purpose of the outlet weir is to accomplish both these objectives, …

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Carbon Steel Trays

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One of the most frequent causes of flooding is the use of carbon steel trays. Especially when the valve caps are also carbon steel, the valves have a tendency to stick in a partially closed position. This raises the pressure drop of the vapor flowing through the valves, which, in turn, pushes up the liquid …

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Trays Jet Flood

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Figure 3.8 is a realistic picture of what we would see if our towers were made of glass. In addition to the downcomers and tray decks containing froth or foam, there is a quantity of spray, or entrained liquid, lifted above the froth level on the tray deck. The force that generates this entrainment is …

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Total Height of Liquid in Downcomer

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To summarize, the total height of clear liquid in the downcomer is the sum of four factors: • Liquid escape velocity from the downcomer onto the tray below. • Weir height. • Crest height of liquid overflowing the outlet weir. • The pressure drop of the vapor flowing through the tray above the downcomer. Unfortunately, …

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Tray Vapor-Flow Pressure Drop

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We have yet to discuss the most important factor in determining the height of liquid in the downcomer. This is the pressure drop of the vapor flowing through the tray deck. Typically, 50 percent of the level in the downcomer is due to the flow of vapor through the trays. When vapor flows through a …

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